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Cohort Acronym

Cohort type
General population-based cohort

Alzheimer's disease, Dementia (unclassified), Frontotemporal dementia, Other NDs not listed, Parkinson's disease, Vascular dementia

Participant type
No diagnosis

Recruitment Period 1994 
Sample size at start or planned sample size if still recruiting 1210  
Estimated Current Sample Size  
Age at Recruitment 69-88   
Gender Male and Female 

GENDER is a study of unlike-sex twin pairs born between 1906 and 1925 (Gold et al., 2002). A survey concerning health and health behavior was mailed in 1994 with responses from 1,210 twins from 605 pairs where both responded. Mean age at baseline questionnaire assessment was 74.43 (SD 4.28) and all are Caucasians. A baseline in-person evaluation of 498 twins from 249 pairs between 70 and 80 years of age was undertaken between 1995 and 1997, and included an interview and tests of cognitive and physical functioning. Two additional in-person waves followed at 4-year intervals. Finally, a second survey was mailed in 2007 to all living twins who participated in the first mailed survey.

Last update – 04/03/2017

Country Sweden 
Contact details
Institution name Jönköping University and Karolinska Institutet 
Principal Investiator (PI) Associate Professor Anna Dahl Aslan 
Contact email PI Email: [email protected] 
Contact phone number +49 (0) 761-714118 
Address Institute of Gerontology,
School of Health and Welfare,
Jönköping University,
Box 1026, 551 11 Jönköping,
Funders (Core support) MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Successsful Aging
The Axel and Margaret Axson Johnson's Foundation, The Swedish Council for Social Research
The Swedish Foundation for Health Care Sciences and Allergy Research 

Variables Collected

Brain related measures: Cognitive function, Mental health, Neurological
Funtional rating: Individual physiological, Individual psychological
Anthropometric: Blood pressure, Height, Hip circumference, Waist circumference, Weight
Physical: Cardiovascular, Hearing and Vision, Musculoskeletal, Reproductive, Respiratory
Biological samples: Blood
Genotyping: Gene screening
Brain imaging: N/A
Brain banking: Consent for brain donation
Lifestyle: Alcohol, Dietary habits, Physical activity, Smoking
Socio-economic: Education, Housing and accommodation, Income and finances, Informal support, Marital status, Occupation and employment, Unpaid care
Health service utilisation: Formal health and social care service utilisation including private care
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